Lithium Ion Batteries
Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are a family of rechargeable batteries having high energy density and commonly used in consumer electronics. Unlike the disposable lithium primary battery, a LIB uses intercalated lithium compound instead of metallic lithium as its electrode.
Usually, LIBs are significantly lighter than other kinds of rechargeable batteries of similar size. LIBs are heavily used in portable electronics. These batteries can be commonly found in PDAs, iPods, cell phones, laptops, etc.
When a LIB is discharging, lithium ions move from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive electrode (cathode). When a LIB is charging, lithium ions move in the opposite direction, and the negative electrode becomes the cathode, while the positive electrode becomes the anode.
The positive electrode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent. The electrochemical roles of the electrodes reverse between anodeand cathode, depending on the direction of current flow through the cell. The most commercially popular negative electrode is graphite